Toward the end of the 1800s some artists, primarily in France, began to develop new techniques for capturing the nuances of light. Painters such as Henri-Edmund Cross and Georges Seurat painted with individual strokes or dots of color instead of physically mixing their pigments. By carefully considering how the colors were arranged they created very dramatic effects. At the same time, artists such as Seurat and Paul Signac often made black-and-white sketches for their works with conte crayon, striving to capture nuances of light and shadow.